The impossible ideal of democratic republicanism based on equality of poverty and law which comes from custom, and is obeyed without coercion.
The possible ideal of a republicanism which may influence modern monarchies or be present in confederations of city-states.
The role of commerce and trade in this kind of realistic liberty, which brings different peoples into peaceful communication.
The principle of honour in monarchy, which incorporates the ideas of a harmonious competitive individualism with regard to wealth and status, fusing aristocratic and bourgeois competition.
Any state should be a moderate state limited by law.
Law should apply punishments in the mildest way possible, as harsh punishments are intrinsically undesirable and are part of despotism.
The value of a division between government and legislation, and decentralisation of government.
Enlightenment values present throughout, including opposition to slavery and oppression of minorities.
A social-historical method unifying the study of geography, history, law and political institutions.